Carnaval Linguee Apps
Carnaval, op. 9 ist ein aus 23 kurzen Charakterstücken bestehender Klavierzyklus von Robert Schumann. Die Erstausgabe erschien im Verlag Breitkopf & Härtel mit einer Widmung für den polnischen Geiger Karol Lipiński. Carnaval bezeichnet: Carnaval-Longdrink, Longdrink; Carnaval, Op. 9, eine Komposition von Robert Schumann, siehe Carnaval (Schumann); den Karneval in. Carnaval, op. 9 ist ein aus 23 (bzw. 22 erklingenden) kurzen Charakterstücken bestehender Klavierzyklus von Robert Schumann. Die Erstausgabe erschien. Übersetzung Französisch-Deutsch für carnaval im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung Spanisch-Deutsch für carnaval im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.
Carnaval de %%datos_comarca%%. Alhama, dessen Verlust der maurische König in einer Romanze betrauerte, war schon in der römischen Epoche sehr. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "carnaval" – Deutsch-Portugiesisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Carnaval, op. 9 ist ein aus 23 kurzen Charakterstücken bestehender Klavierzyklus von Robert Schumann. Die Erstausgabe erschien im Verlag Breitkopf & Härtel mit einer Widmung für den polnischen Geiger Karol Lipiński.
These often weighed very heavily on the population. A year of scraping, frugality and putting every penny aside, would end after the payment on 11 November.
In both the Rhenish and the Burgundian carnaval plays an important role. At 11—11 on During this meeting will also the new Prince be announced.
In Brabant at the same meeting the new carnaval mottos are disclosed by the prince. Also it is the start of the building of the carnaval floats for the coming parade.
Eleven is original the "fools number" in Germanic culture. In German it is called a Schnapszahl and associated with alcohol consumption and used in numerology.
In the Dutch language it is associated with idiocy Dutch : gekkengetal. It is an imperfect number since it is one number less than the base number twelve in the duodecimal numeral system and one number more than the base number ten in the decimal numeral system.
Also it is a prime number. The number eleven in Dutch and German is translated as Elf. There is suggested that the word " elf " became associated with the words Elf , Elves , Elven or Alven.
But Christianized societies were viewing elves in increasingly sinister light. In Anglo-Saxon England as early as the 10th century, Old English medical books attest to elves afflicting humans and livestock by " elf-shot ".
The German elf or alp was seen as an addler of people in medical books, but already in the High Middle Ages there were prayers warding against it as the agent causing nightmares, and eventually for the alp its identity as nightmare spirit became predominant.
The ritual re-enactment of the Wild Hunt was a cultural phenomenon among many Gallic and Germanic peoples. At the head of this army, would have been Erlenköning Hellequin.
Although there is certain historical data on ancient meaning of the number 11, there may also be a younger explanation.
It is known that the oldest Geckengesellschaft jester group was founded by count Adolf of Cleve in and took place on 12 November.
Everything indicates that the foundation celebration of the 11th apparently got out of control, so the signing took place one day too late.
The seal of the count takes the 11th place in the row of 35 stamps. Cabaret in dialect is held in both variants of carnaval.
In North Brabant the person doing the cabaret is called a tonpraoter barrel speaker or in the Western part of North Brabant a sauwelaar , and is actually in or on a barrel.
In Limburg they are named buuttereedner or buutteredner and in Zeeland they are called an ouwoer. They all perform a cabaret speech in dialect, during which many current issues and events of the past year are reviewed.
Often there are local situations and celebrities from the local and regional politics who will be mocked, ridiculed and insulted.
The tonpraoter or buuttereedner is a successor of the medieval jester. Open stages are held in the weeks before the carnaval where people from the community, mostly amateurs, can participate in carnaval related acts like music, farces , dance acts and cabaret.
Such a bonte avond is free to visit for the public. During the "pronkzitting" there are also performances of carnaval orchestras and majorettes.
The prince and youth prince and their councils of eleven will attend. Unlike at other carnaval events, at the pronkzitting the usual dress code for the public is evening dress.
It may be assumed that the emergence of the figure of the jester is coinciding with the development of the medieval civilization. Since the very beginning of his occurrence, the fool has been the personification of folly for centuries, as the jester was the one who tipped reality.
In other words, the jesters mirrored or exaggerated the everyday reality, and is way-ward or taboo -breaking. They spoke truths that others were only secretly thinking.
Actual fools often lacks the ability to behave according to the norms, while conscious jesters exaggerated to serve as a mirror to their public.
The image of the jester is mainly shaped by its heyday. This ran from the Middle Ages to the late seventeenth century.
The default image is that of the jester with fool's cap with bells, cheerful colors and oversized shoes, and marotte.
In reality, some wore a jester costume, but other wore deliberately shabby clothes and some wore noble robes. Nowadays we imagine the jester often with a small deformed appearance, but this was not always the case.
There were basically two kinds of jesters. The ones with physical and especially mental disabilities the fools who could be mocked by their employers and the real jesters who were hired or recruited to mock others and entertain.
If there were setbacks, they were the ones whom one could blame or who could take the heat, or the ones people could laugh about and determine that things could be worse.
The jesters were intelligent artists, well-spoken and theatrical witty. They were aware of their duties and took a position between the ruler and the people.
They could tell the king or ruler what no one else dared. A role that the contemporary tonpraoters and buuttereedners continue in a modern way.
A familiar phenomenon during the carnaval is the presence of the prince  and his entourage which is a parody on the normal authorities.
The prince rules the city during the days of carnaval and symbolizes this way the power that is held by the common people.
The format of this custom varies by region, the prince and his jester generally called adjutant however, are almost universally within the carnaval traditions.
The prince is traditionally a male and can be the same person for years, but often a different person is elected every year.
Depending on the towns tradition, the prince is chosen by the association or by all the people of the town, in which case a campaign is often held.
The prince is called Prins Prince or sometimes Vorst Fürst. Each year the usual all male Council of Eleven of every carnaval association proclaims a prince, and one adjutant or more aides.
The council of eleven does not necessarily hold eleven members, often there are more than eleven, sometimes less. The adjutant of the prince on occasion called jester is part of the Council of Eleven and is the main aid of the prince and second in command.
The actual origin of the name "Council of Eleven" is traced back to the Duchy of Brabant in the fifteenth century. The Netherlands and Belgium in the Middle Ages consisted of a number of duchies , counties, heerlijkheden , etc.
One of those duchies was the Duchy of Brabant , which was the heart and most important region of the Low Countries until late in the 15th century and included the current province of North Brabant Netherlands and the provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant Belgium.
When the Duke of Brabant Anthony of Burgundy in was killed in the battle of Anzicourt , the delegates of the seven ancient cities of Brabant and the four largest abbeys of Brabant organized a meeting to discuss the succession of the Duke.
The Duchess-Widow was not eligible for the succession, because of her rights to Luxembourg. However, they had two sons, the oldest named Jan , was only eleven years.
On 4 November, the states decided to recognize him as Duke of Brabant, and that the day-to-day government should be looked after by the "Council of Eleven" consisting of the seven cities of Brabant and the four abbeys.
The appointment of the board members of the "Council of Eleven" is very likely to have occurred in the following week, on or around 11 November.
It is traditional that the prince, and his council of eleven wears a fore-and-aft bicorne with pheasant tail feathers, in particular in those places that are influenced by the Rhenish Carnaval.
Carnaval is however by definition controlled by unwritten laws. Hence the use of this tradition varies from place to place.
However generally speaking the prince wears "three" feathers on his bicorne. The former princes, adjutant and the carnaval association president wear two feathers, while the actual members of the Council of Eleven wear one feather on their bicorne.
The plumes are worn on the left side of the bicorne. Not everywhere in Limburg and Brabant is a boerenbruiloft peasant 's wedding part of the carnaval.
Especially in the northern and central part of Limburg and eastern part of North Brabant is the boerenbruiloft very often held during the carnaval and is an important part of the carnaval culture.
Each carnaval association has its own tradition concerning choosing the spouse for a wedding. When it's a small association often the bride and groom are chosen by the council of eleven or by the couple that was married the year before.
In Venlo it is not the carnaval association that chooses the participants of the peasant wedding, but an outsider group. This may be a company, a family, a football club, or as in a delegation of the hospital in Venlo.
In that case, the board has determined who would become bride and groom. It is not necessary that the newlyweds are a couple in real life.
It is also not necessary that the bride and groom are single. Both the bride and groom, however, should be in love during the carnaval and they need to transfer their love to all the people who celebrate their wedding along with them.
The highlight of the festival of the peasant wedding is the wedding and feast of the onecht not-marriage of the bride and groom. There are many aspects that can be found in a real-life marriage.
First the engagement will be announced just as if it would be an officially marriage. And both the families should learn to know each other very well in organizing the party and the ceremony, like a normal wedding.
The two families prepare a piece of entertainment for the wedding. And just like a real wedding, a reception and a feast is organized where guests are asked to wear appropriate clothing.
The bride and groom will often dress in wedding clothing from before The bride for example will often wear a poffer , which is a traditional Brabantian headdress.
The first mention of a "boerenbruiloft" peasant wedding was in , when the Saxon elector August in Dresden wedded a peasant and his wife during a large ritual ceremony d'n onech the not-marriage.
It was not a real wedding and the to-be spouse were also not real peasants, but rather the nobility. The real peasants were given the role of noblemen.
It was a reversal ritual, in which the roles were deliberately reversed. This role reversal was intended to avoid the attraction of the eye of the Christian god.
Within the noble circles it was believed that it was the eye of the god which at the beginning of the spring focused on them because of their failure in the past year.
They thought they could escape this danger by dressing during this wedding celebrations and to behave as peasants, and thus appear to be the people at the bottom of the social ladder.
They believed the consequence was that the peasants dressed as nobleman would be harmed by their god instead of the nobles themselves. Carnaval songs are a relatively recent phenomenon after World War II.
Intentionally amateurish marching bands Zaate Hermeniekes or Drunken Marching Bands traditionally perform this kind of music on the streets, mainly in Limburg.
In North-Brabant the music is played mainly indoors in pubs and feast halls, which is also done in Limburg. Carnaval music is often a song written especially for the occasion and is easy to dance to.
It is an expression of one's own culture, one's own lifestyle. The contents of a canavalschlager is often melancholy and even chauvinistic.
For example, it may be an expression of pride in one's own village, town or region, local patriotism and praise of one's own place, and therefore in one's own local dialect.
But it can also be a resistance to loss of identity and alienation, to changes affecting the individuality or local society and against the absorption in the broader culture.
Therefore, it often happens that the village name or the name of the prince of the group, appear in the text of a carnaval song.
The carnaval music is used during the carnaval to ridicule the normal culture, therefore the creating and playing of carnaval music is a very seasonal happening.
Local carnaval clubs usually try to address current issues in local dialect in a carnaval song. Carnaval songs are a form of opportunity compositions.
A good carnaval song has several recognizable ingredients:. Hossen jumping together in a group is a way of dancing during the carnaval which is mainly found in Brabant , also the polonaise is done during the carnaval.
In the southernmost part of the Netherlands in Limburg, there are three ways of carnaval dancing: sjoenkele slowly moving back and forth, left to right, etc.
In southern Limburg the polonaise is called the reijaloet. The polonaise is usually done spontaneous and for short moment of times, but can be done by dozens of people together.
Also during the parade and official gatherings there are usual dance shows performed by the majorettes called dansmarietjes or dansmariekes in Dutch.
During carnaval brass bands, called kapellen Limburg and dweilorkesten ambling orchestra. In Limburg, the orchestras are more limited to playing outside.
This immediately shows a big difference between the two variants: Burgundian carnaval is mainly celebrated indoors, Rhenish carnaval is mostly celebrated outdoors.
Many pubs in Maastricht take their facade away during carnaval to open up to the feast on the streets. The traditional Rhenish carnaval greeting and exclamation is Alaaf.
It is an, on the Lower Rhine area, common jubilant outcry and calling to a toast, but only during the actually Carnaval festivities.
It is not used on other days of the year. The word is introduced through Maastricht from the Cologne word alaaf at least 18th century, but probably older and ended up in Limburg and hence the rest of the Southern Netherlands.
The Cologne word probably goes back to a dialect form of German all-ab , meaning Everything out of the way , with extension of the second A.
The German Rhineland used to be occupied by the Prussians at the time, which had strong militaristic customs. In this region an alternate salute was devised as a protest parody: not with the right hand against the right temple as usual, but with the top of the right hand to the left temple.
In addition to national and provincial variations, there also is a diversity in carnaval rituals between the various cities or towns. In the many yearbooks of local carnaval groups are the local rituals described.
For example: In Den Bosch and some other near municipalities a large doll named Farmer Knillis symbolizes the peasant farmer.
Dressed in an early 20th century farmers outfit and several meters tall, he stands prominently on his pedestal at the Market. On Carnaval Sunday he is revealed in the early afternoon by the Prince in the presence of sometimes thousands of carnaval celebrators.
Carnaval ends on Tuesday midnight with the symbolic burial or burning, depending on the town's tradition of Farmer Knillis by the Prince and his Adjutant.
Knillis has grown into a tradition in several towns and is in Den Bosch revealed since on Carnaval Sunday.
Each leap year, Knillis is accompanied by his wife Hendrien. Until Knillis would be burned at the end of the Carnaval in Den Bosch, but the tradition was then outlawed until it revived in the early 20th century.
Since then Knillis is buried instead of burned in Den Bosch. This tradition is not known however in the majority of Carnaval celebrating towns in Brabant.
In Helmond a variation of this tradition can be found: a man-sized boulder representing Carnaval, which is buried on the forecourt, is dug up every year on Carnaval Saturday.
The boulder stays above ground for four days as a symbol of the Carnaval. At the very end of the Carnaval it is buried again until the following year, while the bystanders mourn for it by loud wailing and weeping.
In Twente children dress up and go door by door making noise by rattling a stick in a jar and singing special songs to get candy, quite like children on IJsselmonde on New Year's Eve before the s and nowadays in North-Holland during St.
Martin's Day. This is called: foekepotten. This however is not common anymore in the rest of the Netherlands. The custom of Foekepotten is already seen on a painting by Pieter Bruegel , called The Fight Between Carnival and Lent from the man with the stick in the jar beneath the figure on the barrel.
The Rhenish variant, which is celebrated in the province of Limburg and has an overlap in the eastern part of North Brabant, is based on the carnaval celebrations in cities in the western German state of North Rhine - Westphalia.
Especially Cologne , which in turn was based mostly on the carnival of Venice , has had a major impact on the nature of this carnaval.
By the end of the 19th century, the carnaval in the Rhineland was used as an opportunity to protest against the imperialist and protestant Prussia which annexated the area at the time.
Many of the current militaristic traditions can be traced back to this protest feast. In the week before carnaval usual Thursday there are, so-called Oude Wijven or Limburgish : Auw Wiever old women days and Oudewijvenbals old women balls.
During Ouwe Wijve or Auw Wiever the pubs and streets are crowded by costumed women, usually dressed as old women.
Men who dare to go out on the streets and in the pubs are at risk to be humiliated, be hit on the buttock and chased away. Also in some towns it is tradition that the women are allowed to kiss every man they like to during Ouw Wijve.
This tradition is especially widespread in the south of Limburg. It is believed to be a postwar invention from Rhineland , where women wanted to emphasize the independence they gained to men who had returned from the front after the years of war.
The tradition may have an older background though. The position of men compared to women in society has often been a matter of debate.
In Cologne is since the so-called Weiberfastnacht known. On the Thursday before carnaval, women are wearing men's clothes, reversing the roles and thus literally "being the man".
In the Dutch border village Groenstraat a precursor to the Auwwieverbal Old women ball or Auw Wieverdaag old women day was known already in the early 19th century.
The people at that time earned a living by breeding goats and selling woman's hair. The Thursday before carnaval the men would sell the hair to their French buyers.
After the sale, as the man had plenty of money, they would go visit the pubs. The women would not be at the sale because they were expected to stay at home.
Out of fear that their men would squander the money raised by their hair, the women would go find their husbands to prevent them from wasting it on alcohol.
The search along the pubs transformed later to the Ouwewijvenbal. The women, this time incognito, firmly asserted themselves to their husbands and other men.
Venlo has a tradition of its own, namely Truujendaag , where the women dress in late medieval clothing. This name is probably derived from the headstrong figure Gertruid Bolwater from Venlo.
According to the legend during a siege of the city during the Guelders Wars in or she defeated several enemy soldiers and tore the banner from the hands of an enemy soldier.
Traditional clothing consists of elaborate costumes. Some buy a complete themed costume in a party store, others create their costumes themselves.
Because the Rhenish carnaval mostly takes place outside on the streets, the costumes are also warmer and generally cover the entire body.
The costumes are elaborate and consist usually out of multiple layers. Old women or witch costumes, animal costumes with horns or sometimes with antlers, face concealing masks, concealing black or red face paint and joker costumes were traditional popular, but these themes are less standard today.
Ordinary jackets or clothing are never to be worn on top of the carnaval clothing, at most underneath the costume. Majorettes perform a typical carnaval dance originating in the Rhineland , where the young women who perform this dance are called Tanzmariechen in German.
They are doing choreographed dance or movement, primarily baton twirling during parades and official carnaval meetings and were introduced into the Dutch carnaval after the second world war.
During the carnival the normal form of government is parodied in the form of the Prince and his entourage taking over the town.
Also the army and the defense forces were traditionally parodied as a way of protesting the Prussian occupation of the Rhenish area at the time.
In Cologne , these imitations arose in particular to make Prussian militarism ridiculous, with a carnaval greeting Alaaf , which is the normal greeting as it were reverses.
And with a joke army that did just about everything, which would make a normal company look ridiculous. The majorettes show clear origins in the camp followers in the 18th and 19th century, and have a vibrant and eventful past.
Around this time Germany had a very large number of armies, and there would be young women in each regiment, who served during the day as a sellers and providers of food and drink and took on household chores like washing clothes.
Thereby offered many of these women and girls themselves as prostitutes, for which they would dress themselves more sexually provocative and they would dance for the soldiers.
Around began to emerge of more regulations in the armies. Slowly these were also applied to the camp followers.
Increasingly, she was a woman who was married to a corporal or soldier, and whose task it was among other things "to wash the linen," according to an old army decision.
The camp follower became not a typical army prostitute anymore, but also not a proper married women. Besides caring for the soldiers, she could still continue entertaining them in various ways.
In the carnaval mockery both the officers and the camp followers were depicted. The officer by portraying him as an effeminate, wig bearing, conceited fool.
The camp follower as a women who was military but provocatively costumed, but also clearly recognizable as a man: the Tanzmarie.
In the early twentieth century, the carnaval associations found further inspiration in the revue girls that performed in the theater at the time.
These were scantily clad young women, accompanied by some military attributes like peak helmets and military backpacks, which showed provocative dances in small groups.
The revue girl grew into a nightclub-like star. It can not be denied that the carnaval with its Tanzmariechen has popularized and even parodied the sparkling shows that could otherwise be enjoyed only in the European major cities.
Young women and girls again took on the role of tanzmariechen instead of men and they performed at the parades during the post-war carnaval.
A show element was added to carnaval, partly due to the rapidly evolving ballet education. Majorettes or dansmariekes began increasingly to act in groups.
Some parts of the Prussian military background are sometimes still reflected today in the movements, music or clothing of the majorettes.
The somewhat slovenly camp follower who accompanied the troops, has evolved into, a still on the Prussian army-inspired, show dance group.
This metamorphosis went through the intermediate of the role performed by men as Tanzmarie. Although the current majorette or dansmarietje has her roots in the carnaval scene, the associations of majorettes widely break these historical ties, and profile themselves more as a sports or dance club.
The Rhenish carnaval has three official colors which appear everywhere. These are red, yellow and green. According carnavalogist Theo Fransen from Venlo the tradition of these colors goes back several centuries, more specifically to the jester in medieval times.
Even before a group of French jesters in Lyon dressed in red, yellow and green. Colours used to have much more meaning than nowadays, and were very important as a means of communication.
An at that time most people could not read or write and therefore used other symbols among which were colors. The symbolism of the colors of the jester was for people in the Middle Ages immediately clear.
In present day, a jester is seen as funny and humorous. At the time of the Middle Ages this was different, since the jester in fact was the personification of devil.
The symbolic value each color the jester carries should be seen in that regard. Red is the color of Christian virtue and ardent love but also is the color of the devil, fire, death, conflict and war.
The yellow color stands for cheerfulness and elation, but also envy, retardation, ignorance and insanity. Green represents new life, youthfulness, boldness, the joy of life, vibrancy, growth and prosperity, but on the other hand, also stands for inexperience and nescience.
The exuberant Burgundian carnaval is the variant that is traditionally seen in most places in the north, mid and west of North Brabant including the area of Den Bosch and Oss , Gelderland Land of Maas and Waal , Achterhoek , Arnhem , Nijmegen , parts of Utrecht and in Overijssel Twente , Flanders and in some places in South Beveland.
The eastern part of North Brabant specifically the Peelland Kwartier and in a lesser degree the Kempenland Kwartier shows a combination of both Burgundian and Rhenish characteristics: though the festivities take place mostly inside the pubs and halls, it shows many costume traditions and other customs from the Rhenish Carnaval, but without the Prussian militaristic influences.
Many, but not all, Burgundian carnavals towns have an official motto. This is often a famous saying in local dialect.
It is proclaimed on 11 November by the new Prince. The typical costume of the Burgundian Carnaval has developed in the prosperous cities of the Duchy of Brabant and County of Flanders at the time of the Burgundian Netherlands.
The shape of the Burgundian carnaval was originally that of a costumed eating feast during which people ridiculed each other.
Because of the great poverty that prevailed in Brabant after the Golden Age until World War II , the traditional feast became characterized by seemingly simple costumes, of which the blue smock with red bandana of mid and especially western North Brabant is perhaps the most iconic and can still be found among the costumes today.
The wearing of the smock secondarily made everyone egalitarian, since people's status cannot be determined by their clothing and thus making it possible to criticize authority regardless people's position in daily life.
Traditional clothing consists of old clothing, curtains, blue smocks and bandana with all kinds of accessories. This outfit can be found especially in the western part of North Brabant, but it is becoming less common in the last decade.
Burgundian carnaval takes place mostly inside in pubs and feasting halls. Since it is warmer in there, the clothing is also less thick and consists of fewer layers.
When going to the different feasting locations, many people use old coats to keep from getting cold outside.
It is common for cities with a Burgundian carnaval tradition to change their name during carnaval although there are some places in eastern Netherlands with the Rhenish carnaval which do this as well.
This name changing tradition is especially common in the towns in and around North Brabant. The tradition to change the city names originates in North Brabant and is seldom seen in Limburg.
In Limburg some towns do change their name during carnaval into a dialect version. During the three days of the carnaval Den Bosch for example will change its name to Oeteldonk , which by popular belief says "Frog Hill".
Contrary to popular belief, oetel in the name Oeteldonk is not a referral to a frog but is a facetious reference to the 's-Hertogenbosch Bishop Adrianus Godschalk Den Dungen 1 August — 's-Hertogenbosch 2 January who came from the village of Den Dungen to become the new Bishop of Den Bosch 8 January , and often fulminated against the "Pagan" Carnaval festivities.
Donk is a reference to a higher dry place in the marsh. The frog is however a symbol often used during Carnaval, and it became a symbol of the Oeteldonk Marsh.
The Burgundian Carnaval does not necessarily use the green, red and yellow which is used in the Rhenish Carnaval. In Den Bosch for example, the traditional carnaval colors are red, white and yellow.
These colors are the combined colors of the catholic church white and yellow , and the Brabantian flag red and white.
Media related to Carnivals of the Netherlands at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The formalized samba schools are very small groups of performers, financed by respected organizations as well as legal gambling groups , who work year-round in preparation for Carnival.
Some samba schools also hold street parties in their neighborhoods, through which they parade along with their followers.
All performers at the Sambadrome have to wear a costume. Some honored members of the school or community may receive one for free, but normally, most will have to pay for their own.
In the s, the black population commemorated the days of Carnival in its own way, highly marked by Yoruba characteristics, dancing in the streets playing instruments.
This form was thought of as "primitive" by the upper-class white elite , and the groups were banned from participating in the official Bahia Carnival, dominated by the local conservative elite.
The groups defied the ban and continued to do their dances. People follow the trucks singing and dancing. The "Amerindian" groups were inspired by Western movies from the United States.
The groups dress up as Native Americans and take on Native American names. Blocos Afros, or Afro groups , were influenced by the Black Pride Movement in the United States, independence movements in Africa, and reggae music that denounced racism and oppression.
The groups inspired a renewed pride in African heritage. Every year, about half a million tourists are attracted to Salvador. It's also possible to watch everything from the Camarotes ringside seats spread out along the way, offering more comfort to the visitors.
The North East state of Pernambuco has unique Carnivals in its present capital Recife and in its colonial capital Olinda. Their main rhythms are the frevo and the maracatu.
Galo da Madrugada is the biggest carnival parade in the world, considering the number of participants, according The Guinness Book of World Records.
It means "dawn's rooster" and parades, as the name suggests, in the morning only. Frevo is Pernambucan-style dance with African and acrobatic influences, as it is fast and electrifying, often using an open umbrella and frequent legs and arms movements.
Unlike Salvador and Rio , the festivities in Recife, Olinda and Itamaraca do not include group competitions.
Instead, groups dance and play instruments side by side. Various "samba schools" compete in a huge parade. The schools are responsible for choosing their own themes, which usually revolve around historical happenings or some sort of cultural or political movement.
Vai-Vai is the oldest school and has been the Special Group champion most times 15 total, including the championship.
It also is the most popular, for it has a larger fan base and many supporters among the people of the city. More than the traditional school parade, the carnival in Espirito Santos includes a large set of attractions, especially in the beach areas of the state, from north to south.
They are held mostly by students' houses, which attract a majority of young people from the neighbor states.
Carnival in Minas Gerais is often characterized by blocos carnavalescos with varying themes and costume styles, almost always accompanied by a brass and drums band.
However, Minas Gerais carnival was first influenced by the Rio de Janeiro Carnival several cities have their own samba schools. The first carnival party in Belo Horizonte happened in , even before the inauguration of the city.
In , Belo Horizonte had the largest carnival in its history and the third largest in Brazil. There were more than three million people on the streets, with about ,00 tourists.
The Carnival of the city of Ouro Preto is very popular with college students in the area. The hills prevent traffic of heavy sound trucks, but don't stop people from feasting all night and day.
The Carnival of the city of Juiz de Fora is that already came to be in the mid 80, one of the three largest carnivals in Brazil.
Curitiba hosts modest carnival celebrations similar to those of other Brazilian cities and events such as Curitiba Rock Festival and a carnival Zombie Walk , all supported by Cultural Foundation of Curitiba which operates under supervision of government of Curitiba.
Originated in Rio de Janeiro between the end of the 19th century and the first years of the 20th century, the samba is still one of the most popular music styles of Brazil.
They transformed the musical genre to make it fit better the carnival parade. One of these new styles was bossa nova, a musical movement initially spearheaded by young musicians and college students from Rio de Janeiro.
In the sixties, Brazil was politically divided, and the leftist musicians of bossa nova started to draw attention to the music made in the favelas.
Many popular artists were discovered at this time. In the seventies, the samba got back to radio. In the beginning of the eighties, after having been sent to the underground due to styles like disco and Brazilian rock, Samba reappeared in the media with a musical movement created in the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro.
It was the pagode, a renewed samba, with new instruments, like the banjo and the tantan, and a new language, more popular, filled with slang.
Various samba schools have been founded throughout Brazil. A samba school combines the dancing and party fun of a night club with the gathering place of a social club and the community feeling of a volunteer group.
Frevo is a wide range of musical styles originating from Recife and Olinda , Pernambuco , Brazil , all of which are traditionally associated with Brazilian Carnival.
The word frevo is said to come from frever , a misspeaking of the Portuguese word ferver to boil. It is said that the sound of the frevo will make listeners and dancers to feel as they are boiling on the ground.
The word frevo is normally used interchangeably either to mean the frevo music or the frevo dance. The frevo music came first. By the end of the 19th century, bands from the Brazilian Army regiments based in the city of Recife started a tradition of parading during the Carnival.
Since the Carnival is originally linked to religion, they played religious procession marches and martial music, as well.
A couple of regiments had famous bands which attracted lots of followers and it was just a matter of time to people start to compare one to another and cheer for their favorite bands.
The two most famous bands were the Espanha meaning Spain , whose conductor was of Spanish origin, and the 14 , from the 14th regiment.
The bands started to compete with each other and also started playing faster and faster, louder and louder. Soon, the artists became oblivious to the derogatory origins of the term and started taking advantage of it.
With the media pushing it forward, the soundtrack of Carnival in Salvador quickly spread over the country through off-season Carnival shindigs , strengthening its industrial potentials and producing year-round hits along the 90s.
The Brazilian Carnival Parades were first broadcast in the late s on television on Rede Globo , which brought the Rio celebrations live, bringing the celebrations to more people all over the nation.
Now defunct, Rede Manchete broadcast the event on several occasions and mounted a joint broadcast with Globo for the event.It is known that the oldest Geckengesellschaft jester group was founded by count Adolf of Cleve in and took place on 12 November. However, in the church attacked the feast furiously. Two other, less likely, explanations that the term would be a contraction Beste Spielothek in Bulzingen finden the Latin Carne meat and Paler ruleliterally "the time that meat reigns" and the Italian Carnueale or the French Carne Avalis both mean so much as "devour flesh" are given as well. In Venlo these Fruit Smash 2 were banned inbut in Wijnandsrade this tradition was held till The Burgundian Carnaval does not necessarily use the green, red FuГџball Em Ard Live yellow which is used in the Rhenish Carnaval.
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